1. Voting at Business Meetings
All Members may vote by show of hands or a secret ballot at the Business Meeting. The Chair of the meeting (the President or his delegate) shall have the deciding vote when votes have been equally cast for and against a business item, except for voting on amending the Constitution and Bylaws, which requires a two-thirds majority.

2. Agenda
The President-Elect shall circulate (through IPSO’s Website and direct email to representatives, elists, and current membership list) a Provisional Agenda to the Members attending the Business Meeting.

3. Resolutions
Resolutions which are not proposed amendments to the Constitution and Bylaws passed by the Business Meeting are binding on IPSO until the next Business Meeting. If it is desired to make permanent the intent of the Resolution, it must be presented in the form of a proposed amendment to the Constitution and/or Bylaws according the provisions of Article 6.
Resolutions expressing a preference, if passed by the Business Meeting, are not binding on IPSO.

4. Procedures for Moving Resolutions
Resolution included on a prepared agenda of any Business Meeting.
Any member may propose a Resolution provided it is submitted, duly signed and seconded, to the President-Elect of IPSO. The ExCom may move a Resolution. Resolutions, if passed by a majority of members, are to be regarded as binding on IPSO.
Motions or Amendments to proposed Resolutions moved from the floor.
a. Any two Members may move and second a motion or an amendment to a proposed resolution from the floor of the Business Meeting.
b. The President may rule that action on a motion from the floor be deferred for consideration at a meeting of the ExCom which shall take place before the meeting terminates.

5. Procedures for the Nomination of Officers (New contents of the Bylaws pertaining to our elections, as decided by the vote we had during the second half of 2018)

A. In the normal course of affairs, nominations shall only be for the “Elect” (President-Elect, three Vice-PresidentsElect), and the Editor and Central Treasurer. The Executive Committee of IPSO is composed of Elected Officers: President/President-Elect; three (3) VicePresidents / three (3) Vice-Presidents-elect; Treasurer, Treasurer-Assistant; Editor. On election or appointment to the Executive Committee, it is emphasized that each Member is then regarded as an Officer and a representative of IPSO and not of the officer’s own local Society. It is the Executive Committee who carries out the day-to-day business of IPSO on its behalf, wherever possible, relevant or necessary, in consultation with the IPSO members.

(a) President-Elect 
The President-Elect shall be nominated among all interested candidates from the region, which shall inherit the Presidency two years after his or her nomination. Candidates interested in this position shall inform the Vice-President of their region and the current President-Elect in writing.

(b) Vice-Presidents-Elect

Each Vice-President (with the help of the regional IPSO Representatives) writes to all IPSO Representatives in their region, requesting nominations. They shall inform the current Vice-President and Vice-President-Elect of that region of their interest before the elections.

(c) Editor

Candidates for the position of Editor-in-Chief may come from any region. It is preferred that the Editor has some prior Editorial/Publishing/Website development experience. A working knowledge of English and Spanish is preferable, as the Website, and parts of the Newsletter and Journal are bilingual publications. 

(d) Central Treasurer

Candidates for the position of Treasurer may come from any region, provided they can have easy access to the Central Account in London and can readily transfer money to the various regions.

B. Formal bids for nomination shall include:
- A statement by the proposed nominee, indicating their willingness to serve through the end of their term, regardless of whether or not they graduate during their term of office.
- A Curriculum Vitae 
- A statement in writing that the nominee is not currently involved in any disputes relating to their ethical conduct.
- A statement in writing from the Institute Director indicating that the nominee is in good standing. Good standing means a candidate actively engaged in an IPA training program according to the training model of the Institute where he/she is training’.

(a) The Executive Committee shall inform the nominees and secure their willingness to serve. To be elected, every ballot winner must be present at the Business Meeting of the Congress.

(b) IPSO Elections shall follow an Electronic Balloting system, to function as follows: By February 1st (in the year of the IPSO Congress), the IPSO President, along with the Regional Vice-Presidents and their Elects, shall write to the IPSO Representatives, requesting nominations. Candidates wishing to run for office must present all the required information for the formal Bids, as stated above, by March 1st. On March 15th of the Congress year the ballots shall be sent to all Full IPSO Members, and ballots shall be counted if received up to April 30th of the Congress year, or such earlier date as the Executive Committee may establish. This deadline may be extended prior to the commencement of the balloting period by the Executive Committee if, in the Executive Committee’s reasonable opinion, there are special
circumstances which make it appropriate to do so. 
The term of Office is two (2) years for the Treasurer and the Editor. They may be re-elected for another two (2) years. From 2015 during the Boston Congress, the terms of Office will change to four (4) years. For all other Officer the term of Office is four (4) years. Two years as President-elect / Vice-President-elect, and two (2) years as President / Vice-President. The maximum term for each Officer is four (4) years. 

6. Voting for Officers
(a) President-Elect, Vice-President-Elect, Treasurer and Editor
1. When only one candidate is nominated, she/he shall be declared elected without a ballot.
2. When two (2) candidates are nominated, a simple majority of the vote’s cast shall decide.
3. When three or more candidates are nominated, each member shall vote according to the Single Transferable Vote System.

7. Tenure of Office
The Officers announced as newly elected shall be installed on the last day of the Congress and serve until they are succeeded at the end of the following Congress. There shall be a joint out-going and in-coming ExCom meeting, presided by the new President at the end of the Business Meeting.
No elected or appointed Officer shall be eligible to serve for more than two (2) full executive terms in the same office.

8. Replacement of Officers
In the event that it is necessary to replace an Officer of the ExCom, the following procedure shall be adopted:
a) When it is necessary to replace the President, the President-Elect will assume office. If it is not possible for the President-Elect to assume the Presidency, another ExCom Officer shall consult all voting members of the ExCom as to which present member of the ExCom from the same geographical area as the presiding President if possible, should become the Replacement-President.
b) When it is necessary to replace the President-Elect, the President will consult with all members of the ExCom to determine a nominee and hold a special election, either at the next meeting of members or by email. (See section on extraordinary meetings). The new President-Elect must come from the same region as the resigning President-Elect.
c) When it is necessary to replace a Vice-President (or Elect), the Central Treasurer or the Editor-in-Chief, the President consults with the Officers of the Executive Committee, and appoints an IPSO member to hold this office until the next election.
The nominated Interim Vice-President will hold office until he/she can be elected at the next Congress. If deemed necessary, the ExCom may decide upon an ExCom member. A simple majority of votes cast shall decide. In case of a tie, the President shall have a second and deciding vote. If the Officer in question is the President, the Vice-President of the region, which holds the Presidency, shall have the deciding vote.
d) When it is necessary to replace the Editor-in-Chief or Central Treasurer, the President shall consult with other members of the ExCom and appoint a member of the ExCom to hold this office until the next election.

9. Indemnification
All officers, Members of Committees, shall be indemnified by members of IPSO for acts carried out on their behalf against all liabilities reasonably or properly incurred by them.

10. Official language for legal purposes
For legal purposes only, the official language of IPSO shall be English. For legal purposes, the English-language version of the Constitution and Bylaws shall be the official version. The Executive Committee Meeting will be held in English.

11. Working languages
The working languages of IPSO shall be English, French, German and Spanish. To the extent that it is possible, the Business Meeting of the IPSO Congress shall be translated into the four working languages of the IPA.

12. Applicable rules
Procedures at the Business Meeting will be in accordance with the current edition of Robert’s Rules of Order. Procedures will be revised in all cases in which they are applicable and in which they are inconsistent with the Constitution and Bylaws and special rules or order that IPSO may adopt.

13. Acceptance of the Constitution and Bylaws
The foregoing Constitution and Bylaws shall become effective immediately after their acceptance by a two-thirds majority vote of members in attendance at the IPSO Business meeting.